- Eleven watercolor paints representing figures of Japanese dance, centuries XVI - XVIII (Vat estr.-or. 32).
- Oath, signed by 42 Christians of Kuchinotzu (Japan), to defend their missionaries to death. The manuscript is dated 1613 (Vat estr.-or. 33).
- Vatican Virgil: product code in Rome around 400 AD, one of the few surviving examples of ancient illustration of a classic text. The code, studied by Raphael and purchased by Fulvio Orsini in 1579, arrived in the Vatican Library in 1600 (Vat lat. 3225).
- Bilingual Iliad, with Greek text and Latin translation, double facing page. The manuscript, written in the fifteenth century by the Greek copyist Giovanni Rhosos and copyist from Padua Bartolomeo Sanvito was illuminated by Gaspare di Padova (Vat gr. 1626)
- Pre-Columbian Aztec manuscript, written probably near Puebla (Mexico) at the end of the fifteenth century. The code had a ritual purpose, perhaps divination with mythological subjects, fairy tales, a calendar and family trees of the venerated gods (Borg. mess . 1: Codex Borgianus).
- The Urbinate Bible, an undisputed masterpiece of Renaissance book art, made on behalf of Federico da Montefeltro, from the Florentine workshop of the bookseller Vespasiano da Bisticci between 1476 and 1478 (Urb lat. 1-2).
- Illustrations of The Divine Comedy by Sandro Botticelli for Lorenzo the Magnificent, in XV century (Reg. lat. 1896 pt . A).
- Beautifully illuminated Hebrew manuscript of the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides, dated between 1451 and 1475 (Ross. 498).
- Collection of 73 fragments of the Koran Kufic (with a precious fragment ḥiǧāzī) already belonged to the antiquarian and bibliophile Tàmmaro De Marinis (Naples, 1878 - Florence 1969), who donated it to the Vatican Library in 1946 (Vat ar . 1605).